He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through western Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India.  For example, Greek astronomical instruments dating to the 3rd century BC were found in the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in modern-day Afghanistan, while the Greek concept of a spherical earth surrounded by the spheres of planets eventually supplanted the long-standing Indian cosmological belief of a disc consisting of four continents grouped around a central mountain (Mount Meru) like the petals of a flower. , East of Porus' kingdom, near the Ganges River, was the Nanda Empire of Magadha, and further east, the Gangaridai Empire of Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. ", "Was Alexander The Great Poisoned By Toxic Wine?  He sent the bulk of his army to the Persian ceremonial capital of Persepolis via the Persian Royal Road.  The men of military age were massacred and the women and children sold into slavery. Alexander was born in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon, on the sixth day of the ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to 20 July 356 BC, although the exact date is uncertain. Examples of cities in the United States include Dallas, Phoenix, Omaha, Kansas City, St. Louis, San Francisco, Boston, Atlanta, New York City, Jersey City, Providence, New Orleans, Las Vegas, Chicago, Los Angeles, Indianapolis, Detroit, Milwaukee and more. Alexander eventually agreed and turned south, marching along the Indus. During the ensuing Battle of Chaeronea, Philip commanded the right wing and Alexander the left, accompanied by a group of Philip's trusted generals. After the defeat, Spitamenes was killed by his own men, who then sued for peace.  Olympias and several of Alexander's friends suggested this showed Philip intended to make Arrhidaeus his heir. In the winter of 327/326 BC, Alexander personally led a campaign against the Aspasioi of Kunar valleys, the Guraeans of the Guraeus valley, and the Assakenoi of the Swat and Buner valleys.  The Corinthian order is also heavily represented in the art of Gandhara, especially through Indo-Corinthian capitals. Tiberias has been held in great respect in Judaism since the mid-2nd century CE, and since the 16th century has been considered one of Judaism's Four Holy Cities, along with Jerusalem, Hebron, and Safed. , After Aornos, Alexander crossed the Indus and fought and won an epic battle against King Porus, who ruled a region lying between the Hydaspes and the Acesines (Chenab), in what is now the Punjab, in the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC. Alexander, however, detecting the horse's fear of its own shadow, asked to tame the horse, which he eventually managed. This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned into a grand tour of central Asia. " Some modern historians (e.g., Robin Lane Fox) believe not only that Alexander's youthful relationship with Hephaestion was sexual, but that their sexual contacts may have continued into adulthood, which went against the social norms of at least some Greek cities, such as Athens, though some modern researchers have tentatively proposed that Macedonia (or at least the Macedonian court) may have been more tolerant of homosexuality between adults.  Henceforth, Alexander often referred to Zeus-Ammon as his true father, and after his death, currency depicted him adorned with the Horns of Ammon as a symbol of his divinity. , Alexander married three times: Roxana, daughter of the Sogdian nobleman Oxyartes of Bactria, out of love; and the Persian princesses Stateira II and Parysatis II, the former a daughter of Darius III and latter a daughter of Artaxerxes III, for political reasons. It burned until Tuesday October 10, 1871 when rain started to fall. 28 January] 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [ O.S.  An inscription from the temple, now housed in the British Museum, declares: "King Alexander dedicated [this temple] to Athena Polias. Its name comes from the Ojibwe word mishigami, meaning "large water" or "large lake". Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with the center advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots bore down and then reforming. Catherine II (born Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst; 2 May 1729 in Szczecin – 17 November 1796), most commonly known as Catherine the Great, was Empress of All Russia from 1762 until 1796—the country's longest-ruling female leader.  The other was Nicaea (Victory), thought to be located at the site of modern-day Mong, Punjab. causing the mermaid to vanish and the sea to calm. American science fiction and fantasy writer, "Broken Earth" redirects here. Glenn Cunningham (born 1943), first African-American mayor of Jersey City (B) Edward M. Daly (born 1965), four-star general in the United States Army who serves as the 20th commanding general of the U.S. Army Materiel Command. , Emperor Julian in his satire called "The Caesars", describes a contest between the previous Roman emperors, with Alexander the Great called in as an extra contestant, in the presence of the assembled gods..  This gave the Macedonian court a good knowledge of Persian issues, and may even have influenced some of the innovations in the management of the Macedonian state.  Natural-cause theories also tend to emphasize that Alexander's health may have been in general decline after years of heavy drinking and severe wounds. Every city has a soul, and the great cities of civilization—like Rome, Athens, São Paolo—finally reach a point when they come to life.  However, a century or so after Alexander's death, many of the Alexandrias were thriving, with elaborate public buildings and substantial populations that included both Greek and local peoples. , In general, Greece enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexander's campaign in Asia.  Two of these pregnancies — Stateira's and Barsine's — are of dubious legitimacy. , Alexander viewed Bessus as a usurper and set out to defeat him.  During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after his death. Whereas he was of a fair colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his breast particularly, and in his face. , When Alexander was 13, Philip began to search for a tutor, and considered such academics as Isocrates and Speusippus, the latter offering to resign from his stewardship of the Academy to take up the post.  Alexander sent back vast sums from his conquest, which stimulated the economy and increased trade across his empire. , Historian and Egyptologist Joann Fletcher has said that the Alexander had blond hair. Philip was then named Hegemon (often translated as "Supreme Commander") of this league (known by modern scholars as the League of Corinth), and announced his plans to attack the Persian Empire. Alexander has figured in both high and popular culture beginning in his own era to the present day. A considerable accession of power was granted him after the death of Philip, son of Machatas; and he was allowed to retain his authority at the death of Alexander himself (323 BC), as well as in the subsequent partition of the provinces at Triparadisus, 321 BC. Alexander's will called for military expansion into the southern and western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations.  Accordingly, Alexander returned to Macedon after six months due to the efforts of a family friend, Demaratus, who mediated between the two parties.  Alexander founded two cities on opposite sides of the Hydaspes river, naming one Bucephala, in honour of his horse, who died around this time. Formed: 2017. " A similar slaughter followed at Ora. The Great Chicago Fire was a large fire that started on Sunday October 8, 1871 in Chicago, Illinois, United States.The fire started out as nine separated fires.  Its sequels, The Obelisk Gate and The Stone Sky, won the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 2017 and 2018, respectively. When "his engineers pointed out to him that because of the height of the mound it would be impossible... this encouraged Alexander all the more to make the The Alexander Romance, in particular, has had a significant impact on portrayals of Alexander in later cultures, from Persian to medieval European to modern Greek.  Darius once more fled the field, and Alexander chased him as far as Arbela. The Greek cities on the western coast of Anatolia revolted until the news arrived that Philip had been murdered and had been succeeded by his young son Alexander. Now it’s New York’s time to be born, but the city itself is too weakened by a gruesome attack to complete the process. , The semi-legendary Alexander Romance also suggests that Alexander exhibited heterochromia iridum: that one eye was dark and the other light..  In 2011, it was nominated for the Hugo Award, World Fantasy Award, and Locus Award, winning the 2011 Locus Award for Best First Novel. , Alexander tried to persuade his soldiers to march farther, but his general Coenus pleaded with him to change his opinion and return; the men, he said, "longed to again see their parents, their wives and children, their homeland". , According to Plutarch, among Alexander's traits were a violent temper and rash, impulsive nature, which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions. He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety.  Olympias' influence instilled a sense of destiny in him, and Plutarch tells how his ambition "kept his spirit serious and lofty in advance of his years". Meanwhile, the city of Amphissa began to work lands that were sacred to Apollo near Delphi, a sacrilege that gave Philip the opportunity to further intervene in Greek affairs.  He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. , Diodorus stated that Alexander had given detailed written instructions to Craterus some time before his death. Sejong the Great (Korean pronunciation: [se(ː)dʑoŋ]; 15 May 1397 – 8 April 1450) was the fourth king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea.He was the third son of King Taejong and Queen Consort Min. The successor states that emerged were, at least initially, dominant forces, and these 300 years are often referred to as the Hellenistic period. She went on to study counseling and earn her Master of Education from the University of Maryland. Award. He colonized it with Greeks, and founded a city named Alexandropolis. , Over the course of his conquests, Alexander founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most of them east of the Tigris. Jemisin was a member of the Boston-area writing group BRAWLers, and is a member of Altered Fluid, a speculative fiction critique group.  The Achaemenid Empire is normally considered to have fallen with Darius. , Alexander was born in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon, on the sixth day of the ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to 20 July 356 BC, although the exact date is uncertain. It was originally thought to have been the sarcophagus of Abdalonymus (died 311 BC), the king of Sidon appointed by Alexander immediately following the battle of Issus in 331.  Lysippos' sculpture, famous for its naturalism, as opposed to a stiffer, more static pose, is thought to be the most faithful depiction. Some of the first and most influential figurative portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time, perhaps modelled on Greek statues of Apollo in the Greco-Buddhist style. Edited by: Liz Gorinsky. Like all great metropolises before it, when a city gets big enough, old enough, it must be born; … , Alexander then chased Darius, first into Media, and then Parthia. He lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon.  His extraordinary achievements, coupled with his own ineffable sense of destiny and the flattery of his companions, may have combined to produce this effect.  Firdausi's Shahnameh ("The Book of Kings") includes Alexander in a line of legitimate Persian shahs, a mythical figure who explored the far reaches of the world in search of the Fountain of Youth.  The temple was designed by Pytheos, one of the architects of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. , Alexander stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized as the leader of the Amphictyonic League before heading south to Corinth.  Craterus started to carry out Alexander's commands, but the successors chose not to further implement them, on the grounds they were impractical and extravagant. Marching west into Illyria, Alexander defeated each in turn, forcing the two rulers to flee with their troops.  In the following year, Bustle called Jemisin "the sci-fi writer every woman needs to be reading". , In January 2016, Jemisin started writing "Otherworldly", a bimonthly column for The New York Times. In this standalone short story by N. K. Jemisin, author of The Fifth Season, winner of the Hugo Award for Best Novel, New York City is about to go through a few changes. When Alexander asked Diogenes what he could do for him, the philosopher disdainfully asked Alexander to stand a little to the side, as he was blocking the sunlight.  During the wedding banquet, a drunken Attalus publicly prayed to the gods that the union would produce a legitimate heir. The cosmopolitan art and mythology of Gandhara (a region spanning the upper confluence of the Indus, Swat and Kabul rivers in modern Pakistan) of the ~3rd century BC to the ~5th century AD are most evident of the direct contact between Hellenistic civilization and South Asia, as are the Edicts of Ashoka, which directly mention the Greeks within Ashoka's dominion as converting to Buddhism and the reception of Buddhist emissaries by Ashoka's contemporaries in the Hellenistic world.  Philip marched on Amphissa (ostensibly acting on the request of the Amphictyonic League), capturing the mercenaries sent there by Demosthenes and accepting the city's surrender. Alexander followed close behind and captured the strategic hill-fort after four bloody days. , She is first cousin once removed to stand-up comic and television host W. Kamau Bell.  Plutarch stated that Philip, overjoyed at this display of courage and ambition, kissed his son tearfully, declaring: "My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. , Leaving Egypt in 331 BCE, Alexander marched eastward into Achaemenid Assyria in Upper Mesopotamia (now northern Iraq) and defeated Darius again at the Battle of Gaugamela. Discover which famous people were born across popular cities in California. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading The City Born Great: A Tor.com Original. However, the memorial was found to be dedicated to the dearest friend of Alexander the Great, Hephaestion. All three of these people had motive to have Philip murdered. The Dwarfs ruled in their great halls of stone below ground and wrestled the fruits of the rock free with their day-long toil, while the manlings reaped the fields of swaying corn that surrounded the city with a patchwork blanket of gold. , Before crossing to Asia, Alexander wanted to safeguard his northern borders.  There was also considerable friction between Antipater and Olympias, and each complained to Alexander about the other. He overcame this by being personally involved in battle, in the manner of a Macedonian king. , Philip and his army joined his son in 338 BC, and they marched south through Thermopylae, taking it after stubborn resistance from its Theban garrison. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mould of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. On entering Persepolis, Alexander allowed his troops to loot the city for several days. Irish playwright Aubrey Thomas de Vere wrote Alexander the Great, a Dramatic Poem. Crossing the river at night, he surprised them and forced their army to retreat after the first cavalry skirmish.  Such legends may have emerged when Alexander was king, and possibly at his instigation, to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception.  As Alexander approached, Bessus had his men fatally stab the Great King and then declared himself Darius' successor as Artaxerxes V, before retreating into Central Asia to launch a guerrilla campaign against Alexander. Discover which famous people were born across popular cities in England. Discover the most popular cities famous people were born in and learn which celebrities are from your favorite cities.  Alexander then set out on his Asian campaign, leaving Antipater as regent. [e] As Pausanias tried to escape, he tripped over a vine and was killed by his pursuers, including two of Alexander's companions, Perdiccas and Leonnatus. There are always enemies, but a great city will defeat them with the help of its chosen midwives, people who love their cities so much that they become a physical part of them. , Mieza was like a boarding school for Alexander and the children of Macedonian nobles, such as Ptolemy, Hephaistion, and Cassander. About 100,000 people were left homeless. , According to Josephus, Alexander was shown the Book of Daniel when he entered Jerusalem, which described a mighty Greek king who would conquer the Persian Empire. , The fort of Massaga was reduced only after days of bloody fighting, in which Alexander was wounded seriously in the ankle. )", East-West Orientation of Historical Empires, (Libanius, Oration In Praise Of Antioch, 88. Alexander then marched for three days to the Danube, encountering the Getae tribe on the opposite shore.  This event may have contributed to Alexander's failing health and detached mental state during his final months. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's surviving generals and heirs.  Philip exiled four of Alexander's friends, Harpalus, Nearchus, Ptolemy and Erigyius, and had the Corinthians bring Thessalus to him in chains. He never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered. He has a thin physique, white skin, black hair and black eyes.  A link to his comments was tweeted on the SFWA Authors Twitter feed, and Beale was subsequently expelled from the organization. Anaximenes, also accompanied him on his campaigns. He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his fourth wife, Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, king of Epirus. , In pre-Islamic Middle Persian (Zoroastrian) literature, Alexander is referred to by the epithet gujastak, meaning "accursed", and is accused of destroying temples and burning the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism. In the aftermath of Massaga and Ora, numerous Assakenians fled to the fortress of Aornos.  After three unsuccessful assaults, the stronghold fell, but not before Alexander had received a serious shoulder wound. After this, details on the fate of the tomb are hazy.. , Jemisin lives and works in Brooklyn, New York.  However, Alexander's constant demands for troops and the migration of Macedonians throughout his empire depleted Macedon's strength, greatly weakening it in the years after Alexander, and ultimately led to its subjugation by Rome after the Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC).. This would fit with the intended destination of Alexander's funeral cortege. In the 2nd–10th centuries, Tiberias was the largest Jewish city in the Galilee, and the political and religious hub of the Jews in the Land of Israel. At its worst, in September of 1665, the plague killed 7,165 people in one week. He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader. , During his youth, Alexander was also acquainted with Persian exiles at the Macedonian court, who received the protection of Philip II for several years as they opposed Artaxerxes III. Gatsby is a fabulously wealthy man Like all great metropolises before it, when a city gets big enough, old enough, it must be born; …  Furthermore, town planning, education, local government, and art current in the Hellenistic period were all based on Classical Greek ideals, evolving into distinct new forms commonly grouped as Hellenistic.  In addition, Pliny the Elder writes about this unsuccessful plan adding that the distance was 12 kilometres (7 1⁄2 mi), and the purpose was to cut a canal through the isthmus, so as to connect the Caystrian and Hermaean bays.  The Roman era writer Athenaeus says, based on the scholar Dicaearchus, who was Alexander's contemporary, that the king "was quite excessively keen on boys", and that Alexander kissed the eunuch Bagoas in public. Miami (/ m aɪ ˈ æ m i /), officially the City of Miami, is a metropolis located in southeastern Florida in the United States.It is the third most populous metropolis on the East coast of the United States, and it is the seventh largest in the country. , Alexander also had a close relationship with his friend, general, and bodyguard Hephaestion, the son of a Macedonian noble. They went on to occupy the city of Elatea, only a few days' march from both Athens and Thebes. In the spring of 335 BC, he advanced to suppress several revolts.  Polybius began his Histories by reminding Romans of Alexander's achievements, and thereafter Roman leaders saw him as a role model. Though outmanoeuvered by Darius' significantly larger army, he marched back to Cilicia, where he defeated Darius at Issus. It included: Alexander earned the epithet "the Great" due to his unparalleled success as a military commander.  Alexander's relationship with his father forged the competitive side of his personality; he had a need to outdo his father, illustrated by his reckless behaviour in battle. However, Alexander met with resistance at Gaza. Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary (in present-day Austria), close to the border with the German Empire.  The Yavanajataka (lit.  According to the ancient Greek biographer Plutarch, on the eve of the consummation of her marriage to Philip, Olympias dreamed that her womb was struck by a thunderbolt that caused a flame to spread "far and wide" before dying away. With these victories, he secured his northern frontier. After the assassination of Perdiccas in 321 BC, Macedonian unity collapsed, and 40 years of war between "The Successors" (Diadochi) ensued before the Hellenistic world settled into four stable power blocs: Ptolemaic Egypt, Seleucid Mesopotamia and Central Asia, Attalid Anatolia, and Antigonid Macedon. , Alexander advanced on Egypt in later 332 BC, where he was regarded as a liberator. The City Born Great N.K. Following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the east, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was far-ranging.  However, Ogden calculates that Alexander, who impregnated his partners thrice in eight years, had a higher matrimonial record than his father at the same age. Several examples of capitals displaying Ionic influences can be seen as far as Patna, especially with the Pataliputra capital, dated to the 3rd century BC. About.  In medieval Europe, Alexander the Great was revered as a member of the Nine Worthies, a group of heroes whose lives were believed to encapsulate all the ideal qualities of chivalry. The elephant had gold rings around its tusks and an inscription was on them written in Greek: "Alexander the son of Zeus dedicates Ajax to the Helios" (ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ Ο ΔΙΟΣ ΤΟΝ ΑΙΑΝΤΑ ΤΩΙ ΗΛΙΩΙ).  However, when, at some point later, Alexander was on the Jaxartes dealing with an incursion by a horse nomad army, Spitamenes raised Sogdiana in revolt. Under Aristotle's tutelage, Alexander developed a passion for the works of Homer, and in particular the Iliad; Aristotle gave him an annotated copy, which Alexander later carried on his campaigns.  Alexander reacted by sending an actor, Thessalus of Corinth, to tell Pixodarus that he should not offer his daughter's hand to an illegitimate son, but instead to Alexander.  However, it appears Philip never intended to disown his politically and militarily trained son. , Perdiccas initially did not claim power, instead suggesting that Roxane's baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus, Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians. , In Hindi and Urdu, the name "Sikandar", derived from the Persian name for Alexander, denotes a rising young talent, and the Delhi Sultanate ruler Aladdin Khajli stylized himself as "Sikandar-i-Sani" (the Second Alexander the Great). Herod's father was by descent an Edomite, whose ancestors had converted to Judaism.Herod was raised as a Jew. Jemisin", Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, Recommended Reading Shortlist for the Parallax Award, "For Reigning Fantasy Queen N.K. , News then reached Alexander that Cleitus, King of Illyria, and King Glaukias of the Taulantii were in open revolt against his authority. , While Alexander campaigned north, the Thebans and Athenians rebelled once again.  At first, all went well.  Alexander sought to insert Greek elements into Persian culture and attempted to hybridize Greek and Persian culture.  According to the story, Alexander proclaimed that it did not matter how the knot was undone and hacked it apart with his sword. Writing shortly after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus, invented a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris, queen of the mythical Amazons.  While Alexander worried that his father would leave him "no great or brilliant achievement to be displayed to the world", he also downplayed his father's achievements to his companions. The places we live are imbued with the personality of their citizens, and full of quirks all their own.  Diodorus, Curtius and Justin offered the more plausible story that Alexander passed his signet ring to Perdiccas, a bodyguard and leader of the companion cavalry, in front of witnesses, thereby nominating him. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and trade between East and West, and vast areas to the east were significantly exposed to Greek civilization and influence.  Another recent analysis suggested pyogenic (infectious) spondylitis or meningitis.  Alexander adopted elements of Persian dress and customs at court, notably proskynesis, a practice of which Macedonians disapproved, and were loath to perform.  Although Alexander was stubborn and did not respond well to orders from his father, he was open to reasoned debate. Later in his childhood, Alexander was tutored by the strict Leonidas, a relative of his mother, and by Lysimachus of Acarnania. The advance was successful and broke Darius' center, causing the latter to flee once again. , In summer 336 BC, while at Aegae attending the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra to Olympias's brother, Alexander I of Epirus, Philip was assassinated by the captain of his bodyguards, Pausanias.  According to Diodorus, Alexander's companions asked him on his deathbed to whom he bequeathed his kingdom; his laconic reply was "tôi kratistôi"—"to the strongest".  However, in a 2003 BBC documentary investigating the death of Alexander, Leo Schep from the New Zealand National Poisons Centre proposed that the plant white hellebore (Veratrum album), which was known in antiquity, may have been used to poison Alexander. Pompey the Great adopted the epithet "Magnus" and even Alexander's anastole-type haircut, and searched the conquered lands of the east for Alexander's 260-year-old cloak, which he then wore as a sign of greatness. She has also worked as a counseling psychologist. , Taking over the invasion project of Philip II, Alexander's army crossed the Hellespont in 334 BC with approximately 48,100 soldiers, 6,100 cavalry and a fleet of 120 ships with crews numbering 38,000, drawn from Macedon and various Greek city-states, mercenaries, and feudally raised soldiers from Thrace, Paionia, and Illyria. “The City Born Great” captures the personality of New York City wonderfully, its rough edges, and its unbreakable spirit. Moreover, that a very pleasant odour exhaled from his skin and that there was a fragrance about his mouth and all his flesh, so that his garments were filled with it, this we have read in the Memoirs of Aristoxenus. Jemisin. , The strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve days passed between the start of his illness and his death; such long-acting poisons were probably not available. It was followed by two further novels in the same trilogy – The Broken Kingdoms in 2010 and The Kingdom of Gods in 2011. ", In 337 BC, Alexander fled Macedon with his mother, dropping her off with her brother, King Alexander I of Epirus in Dodona, capital of the Molossians. Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion and syncretism which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. For the unrelated film, see, "Announcing WisCon 38's Guests of Honor: Hiromi Goto and N.K. Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought against him from the strongholds of Massaga, Ora and Aornos. , Suda writes that, also, Anaximenes of Lampsacus was one of his teachers. Between Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans, especially through Indo-Corinthian.. Sent the bulk of his title born across popular cities famous people born. A Hajj ( pilgrimage to Mecca ) many the city born great wikipedia in subsequent Islamic art and literature became major cultural,! 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