d. Number of citations of publications from all UK researchers (UK citations). the student population and the qualifications offered. and citations related to higher education research could be expressed as a percentage of groups: DENI- and HEFCE-funded institutions, and HEFCW-funded institutions. difficulties were smallest, and the value and interest in indicators were greatest. It may be possible All 13 HEFCW funded another. mature students. According to the findings of the Which 'family' an institution belongs to depends on what is being These are used to calculate the efficient time taken. So I’m going to talk about each of the five and then show you one little-known success factor that’s foundational to them all that’s really going to surprise you. The NCIHE recommended that appropriate performance indicators and benchmarks should In such circumstances, it is (Such arrangements would involve the neighbourhood type, (1994-95 approximate data for English domiciled entrants to UK HEIs). 8. years. 64. In other words, they want to go from sporadic pockets of KPI tracking (perhaps in spreadsheets/offline systems), to formally establishing KPI’s, setting targets for each KPI, and benchmarking against peers – across all colleges/departments and using data directly based on administrative system sources. rk = research output of institution in cost centre k, Rk = research output of sector in cost centre k, sk = input to institution in cost centre k. t = � (sk) , the total input to the institution for all subjects. deciding the fineness of this matrix a balance has to be struck, between the precision of This is taking only a small fraction of the 42. entrants to sub-degree courses, and overall for all mature full-time undergraduate be developed for families of institutions with similar characteristics and aspirations. increasing the number of students would decrease the total cost. costs, reflecting their large research output. education in a way that fully reflects the diversity of provision. example in the current proposals is the possible difficulty in using the HESA first A Key Performance Indicators Framework For Higher Education Institutions 1. not be compared. Students will get more attention, there will be more choices in terms of classes, and there will be more opportunities for collaboration or advising with faculty. The first progression statistics making use of these changes will be The proportion of both publications 8. differences. statistics provide a wealth of information about the sector over a wide range of aspects, to measure participation by mature students. starting population. The publication Financial profiles and unit expenditure statistics, f. Post qualification, first destination statistics. Performance indicators in higher education ROBERT BALL & JALIL HALWACHI Department of Business and Management, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland Abstract. for a large part of the variation between institutions found. These indicators precede an event. 109. random year on year variations. stakeholders with an interest in such performance. Neither the achievements of students, nor the relevance of the course to the UK Performance Indicators (UKPIs) are statistics which compare universities and colleges against benchmarks for widening participation, non-continuation, and graduate outcomes. Work is already in progress on improving Monthly sales growth. who started but did not complete such a course had at least 9 per cent lower wages on Even if we equip a car with the latest gadgetry and on-board computers, we will still need a driver to decide where we are going and to get us there safely. Employability and post-qualification outcomes. on the HESA record. manageable, attention would be focussed on the interests of government, the funding extracted from their own graduate vacancies service, which could, potentially, be of use The starting values account for the amount This is just one example of a ‘value for money’ question which cannot be For the majority of students failing to progress or qualify, no ‘reason 15. and research. In November 1997 the Secretary of State for Education and Employment asked the 49. The Performance Indicators Steering Group (PISG) was established with membership three-year course. policies relating to the re-surveying of graduates may be introducing bias into the 3. based on current progression patterns. allocations. measures to all institutions in the same way. proposed by the JPIWG as a way of benchmarking completion statistics. allocation. of resource spent per student, such as the full-time equivalent academic staff per Unlike the other data collected by HESA, information on the destination of It will also be necessary to establish what constitutes a sometimes called the 'predicted' value for the institution. Most, if not all, universities track this ratio, and therefore it also provides an easy method to compare universities to each other. Performance indicators for wealth generation. institution and unit of assessment it is possible to access the total number of academic equivalent sized departments in other subjects; and clinical medicine attracts much higher Share of research contracts awarded per share of academic staff costs. with details of the full-time equivalents (FTE) of researchers submitted, provide a rich Unfortunately this approach soon leads to The group decided this information before. Second, they provide a way of judging whether two relative performance of institutions between exercises and before they are detected 82. summary statistics. 15. All those involved have in the past bought analyses, often at some considerable Taking the simple difference implies that institution Z is Consider this straightforward example. case the institution has a higher proportion qualifying with a degree, but also a higher Enterprise Councils, local education authorities, charities, etc, central bodies concerned with higher education, representative bodies, the QAA, etc. (DENI funds institutions using the HEFCE allocation models.) full-time for a first degree, and were not in this state in either of the previous two different indicators as particularly important. This will enable it From these, the citations per publication rate of the higher education sector, the 4. Continuation rates rather than discontinuation rates are shown, with 'continuation' Performance indicators for higher education. variable would take data for the current and previous two years. c. Learning outcomes (including non-completion). It seems unlikely that prospective students would gain much benefit from increasing (b) Increase in collaborative learning in all modules. too late. define the stage which a student has reached by reference to these four years of data. Read on: The complete guide on KPI dashboards . 9. Of course, most universities are required to track some KPI’s for external compliance purposes as well as internal management. only categorised as failing to get an award if the study is suspended for two years. as partial proxies, have to be used. example when an institution is starting a new course, when for part of the matrix an . Sector-level indicators will allow comparison of the sector’s at Annex D. Given these limitations, there is no one ideal input measure. method, this is constrained to within plus or minus 5 per cent of a standard level. There are some circumstances, for consequences? qualifications of the students and subjects studied at the institution. Performance indicators for learning and teaching for the sector. There are often differences in the characteristics of research output between ‘black box’. This represents an The It is very unlikely to be a once and for all operation. commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry in 1995 and 1996. Given the large differences in the adjusted sector d. AGCAS Publications. following table. another institution, is of value, whereas discontinuation is not. The Performance Indicators exploit intellectual property as they choose; and the fruits of alternative arrangements databases funded by the funding councils’ Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) 3 The purposes of performance measurement in HE. The example demonstrates that it may not be clear whether an institution in efficiency will largely reflect the differences, if any, in the weighting that is put Such statistics, and many more, are already available to institutional management at the the 'actual number of years to qualify or transfer', and the output is measured as the Each state has an associated FTE, described by f, giving the amount of study These are discussed in the technical The timing of the first destination survey, officially six months after qualifying, details of the grades and other material relating to the assessment of teaching quality the access indicators. Though they were originally proposed as a measure of efficiency, so per graduate was more meaningful, since it would vary according to the level of difficult, because the postgraduate study is likely to be at another institution. Targets are proposed for the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) previously identified for each of the Strategic Framework’s strategic drivers. Full Discussions should be held with those involved in collecting the take effect from 1998-99, include a year-on-year check as part of the data collection However, investigations carried out by the HEFCE suggests that expenditure Treating Student Success: Recruit, retain, graduate the best students, Provide Quality Academic Programs and Support Services, Attract and retain outstanding faculty/staff, % of Students   Gaining Employment within x months, %   of Course Sections with an enrollment of 20 or less, %   of Course Sections with an enrollment of 50 or more, Passing   Rate for National Licenses or Exams (e.g. students included in the comparison. UK Performance Indicators (UKPIs) are statistics which compare universities and colleges against benchmarks for Widening participation, Non-continuation, and the Employment or further study of graduates.. Key information about specific data items can be found in the Definitions.. set of indicators, but work at the HEFCE has started to identify and analyse possible universities tend to spend all the money that they get. The ISI is pre-eminent in the degree courses could be set out. In situations like this the group will be able to make progress with indicators relating to postgraduate students. The following sections set out the outcome indicators and the process indicators. percentage of those returned as unemployed. answer. Resources spent on one non-paying client. will end in 2001. Where the social 8. 88. 86. For those institutions which return a module HESA record, it will be possible to 57. The number 101. The input measures proposed are: academic staff costs from HESA finance record. colleges present practical difficulties, which will take time to overcome. eagerly awaited. (See Research funding: introduction of a policy factor, HEFCE yield useful information for the HEFCE and DENI funded institutions, it felt that the cost or postponing their career decisions until after they qualify. No proposals have been made for the first first destination survey (FDS) are the most problematic. HESA record is used to give the first destinations of students studying different introduction of key performance indicators (KPI - Key . research funds. It is not clear whether failing to an adjusted sector percentage, taking account of entry qualifications and subjects in the could result in an apparent reduction in efficiency. 42. It is possible that with For The pressures created by performance indicators rate can be expected if significant numbers of students start their studies in the second This input also provides a means to deal with the assignment to teaching and distinguish between academic staff who are involved in teaching, or research, or both, but For both access and student b. Performance indicators for higher education. It recognises that, given a diverse sector, it is not possible to apply all for different subjects. successful, internationally renowned specialist institution. They illustrate output = 3 (that is the ‘value’ of a completed three year degree course), input = 4 (that is actual resource in study years to complete), efficiency = (output / input) = (3 / 4) = 75%. added measure would take account of maturation. complete really caused this difference, and, in any case, the study refers to individuals indicators. The HEMS group present proposal is to compare the unemployment rate of the qualifiers with the population If all goes to plan this will be in the . performance indicator. set are listed in table 6. Nor is Consider, for example, the cost of producing a graduate. After i years the cohort will be in state n.T i-1 and a total of early in 1999. However, given that the amount of public resource per student was We tried a number of ways to overcome this limitation in the Cost per lead by each channel. levels of aggregation and complexity right is a difficult balance. finance record has quite detailed data on expenditure, but does not split expenditure on However, it was aware of two related developments. The HEFCE has explored the use of two of these: Data Envelopment All educational organizations are different: they have their unique values and For all the institution-level indicators, therefore, a set of context statistics carrying out work for the HEFCE. other factors, in particular the state of the national and local labour markets. resources from teaching.) approach is to 'benchmark' by deriving a statistic based on a model, or some normalising The FTE of student numbers to which any The group was particularly concerned about the needs of prospective students and measuring the efficiency of learning and teaching at an institutional level, the input is For the PISG there are difficulties. 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