London hosted the first official World Championships in 1926. Table tennis equipment, consisting of racket, ball, net, and table, come in a wide variety from a multitude of manufacturers. The name "ping-pong" then came to describe the game played using the rather expensive Jaques's equipment, with other manufacturers calling it table tennis. For example, a player may have a rubber that provides much spin on one side of their racket, and one that provides no spin on the other. If the sequence of serving and receiving is out of turn or the ends are not changed, points scored in the wrong situation are still calculated and the game shall be resumed with the order at the score that has been reached. The ITTF uses the term "racket", though "bat" is common in Britain, and "paddle" in the U.S. and Canada. Author of. By flipping the racket in play, different types of returns are possible. A quick, smooth follow-through is desirable. The upper torso is positioned slightly forward and the player is looking forwards. Updates? , After the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, the ITTF instituted several rule changes that were aimed at making table tennis more viable as a televised spectator sport. The serve is made from behind the end of the table, the server tossing the ball upward from the palm of the free hand and striking it as it descends so that it first bounces on the server’s own court and then, passing over the net, bounces on the opponent’s court. Like the backspin stroke, however, the axis of spin remains roughly perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball thus allowing for the Magnus effect to dictate the subsequent curvature. Prior to the discovery of the sponge rubber racket, the game of table tennis did not requi… The small bats will be used when you play ping-pong. The original Pong consisted of two paddles that players used to volley a small ball back and…. Aside from the initial direction change when bouncing, unless it goes out of reach, the opponent can counter with either topspin or backspin. World Championship of Ping Pong uses old-fashioned wooden paddles covered with sandpaper. , 'A good ready position will enable you to move quickly into position and to stay balanced whilst playing powerful strokes. 1. A basic table tennis paddle is used by table tennis players. Table Tennis - Characteristics of Intermediate Level Play Greg Letts.  The rules of table tennis do not prescribe the manner in which one must grip the racket, and numerous grips are employed. Finger spin, especially in the United States, reached a stage where the experts could produce untakable services and the game became farcical. If a game is unfinished after 10 minutes' play and fewer than 18 points have been scored, the expedite system is initiated. , On many continents, there is a governing body responsible for table tennis on that continent. This requires precision, since the ball's spin, speed, and location all influence the correct angle of a block. Increasing the speed of the game, slowing it down, varying the direction of or imparting different spin or pace to the ball, and employing gentle drop shots over the net when the opponent is out of position are some of the tactics that may be used to support the strategy planned. A point is scored when a player fails to return the ball within the rules. The representative sample consisted of 48 top senior table tennis players from Bosnia and Herzegovina, age 18 and 36, selected on the basis of a qualification tournament. Cancel Unsubscribe. In serving, no spin may be imparted to the ball by the fingers. Some famous choppers include Joo Sae-hyuk and Wu Yang. This imparts topspin to the ball. To help a player distinguish between the rubber used by his opposing player, international rules specify that one side must be red while the other side must be black. There are professional competitions at the clubs level; the respective leagues of Austria, Belgium, China (China Table Tennis Super League), Japan (T.League), France, Germany (Bundesliga), and Russia are examples of the highest level. Despite high speed play and rapid exchanges, a player can see clearly what side of the racket was used to hit the ball. The player swings upward while "brushing" or grazing the upper half of the ball with a closed racket face (the top of the blade tipped toward the net). The hook can even be used in some extreme cases to circumvent the net when away from the table. The correct or incorrect guess gives the "winner" the option to choose to serve, receive, or to choose which side of the table to use. Corkspin is almost always mixed with another variety of spin, since alone, it is not only less effective but also harder to produce. Table Tennis Ontario; Register as a member & sign up for UTTTC emails!  Many world class European and East Asian players currently use the shakehand grip, and it is generally accepted that shakehands is easier to learn than penholder, allowing a broader range of playing styles both offensive and defensive. For example, the European Table Tennis Union (ETTU) is the governing body responsible for table tennis in Europe. The ball passes over the player's court or beyond their end line without touching their court, after being struck by the opponent. The most popular style, usually referred to as the Chinese penhold style, involves curling the middle, ring, and fourth finger on the back of the blade with the three fingers always touching one another. The counter-hit is usually a counterattack against drives, normally high loop drives. This is known as "closing the racket". After all, they can be very costly, so you don't want to buy the wrong one and then discover that you've made an expensive mistake.. A rule to shorten the time of a match, it is mainly seen in defensive players' games. A point is scored when the server fails to make a good service, when either player fails to make a good return, or when either player commits a specified infraction (e.g., touches the playing surface with a free hand while the ball is in play). Hardbat table tennis uses rackets with short outward "pips" and no sponge, resulting in decreased speeds and reduced spin. Organized tennis is played according to … In table tennis, "Western" refers to Western nations, for this is the grip that players native to Europe and the Americas have almost exclusively employed. and shots per rally were analyzed as table tennis character-istics. For measurements we used Wingate test (WAnT). Hancock Ltd.  Backspin is commonly employed in service because it is harder to produce an offensive return, though at the professional level most people serve sidespin with either backspin or topspin. The opponent strikes the ball twice successively. Professional table tennis players use a combination of rubbers to enhance the speed and power of their table tennis rackets for them to have an advantage over their opponents. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections?  Various types of surfaces provide various levels of spin or speed, and in some cases they nullify spin. In table tennis blades it is principally used as mid veneers. , The Seemiller grip is named after the American table tennis champion Danny Seemiller, who used it. When a player tries to attack a ball that has not bounced beyond the edge of the table, the player does not have the room to wind up in a backswing. Returning the serve is one of the most difficult parts of the game, as the server's first move is often the least predictable and thus most advantageous shot due to the numerous spin and speed choices at his or her disposal. Alterations are frequently made to regulations regarding equipment in an effort to maintain a balance between defensive and offensive spin choices. 146,165,353 stock photos online. The lightweight hollow ball is propelled back and forth across the net by small rackets (bats, or paddles) held by the players. Goode who, in 1901, invented the modern version of the racket by fixing a sheet of pimpled, or stippled, rubber to the wooden blade. Unlike any of the techniques mentioned above, corkspin (or "drill-spin") has the axis of spin relatively parallel to the ball's trajectory, so that the Magnus effect has little or no effect on the trajectory of a cork-spun ball: upon bouncing, the ball will dart right or left (according to the direction of the spin), severely complicating the return. In table tennis topspin is regarded as an offensive technique due to increased ball speed, lower bio-mechanical efficiency and the pressure that it puts on the opponent by reducing reaction time. JOURNALS FREE ACCESS. In the last possible game of a match, for example the seventh game in a best of seven matches, players change ends when the first player scores five points, regardless of whose turn it is to serve. In casual games, many players do not toss the ball upward; however, this is technically illegal and can give the serving player an unfair advantage. ITTF currently includes 220 member associations.  The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) followed in 1926. Then World No 1 table tennis professional Vladimir Samsonov threatened to pull out of the World Cup, which was scheduled to debut the new regulation ball on October 12, 2000. ITTF currently includes 226 member associations. A backspin stroke is similar in the fact that the corkspin stroke has a lower maximum velocity, simply due to the contact angle of the racket when producing the stroke. Traditionally these square-headed rackets feature a block of cork on top of the handle, as well as a thin layer of cork on the back of the racket, for increased grip and comfort. Unlike the two aforementioned techniques, sidespin causes the ball to spin on an axis which is vertical, rather than horizontal. In the mid-1950s Asia emerged as a breeding ground of champions, and from that time the men’s team event has been won by either Japan or China, as has the women’s event, though to a lesser extent; North Korea also became an international force. When the opponent attempts to return the ball, the topspin causes the ball to jump upwards and the opponent is forced to compensate for the topspin by adjusting the angle of his or her racket. The game was invented in England in the early days of the 20th century and was originally called Ping-Pong, a trade name. A speed drive is used mostly for keeping the ball in play, applying pressure on the opponent, and potentially opening up an opportunity for a more powerful attack. The Seemiller grip's popularity reached its apex in 1985 when four (Danny Seemiller, Ricky Seemiller, Eric Boggan and Brian Masters) of the United States' five participants in the World Championships used it. The rate was twice as high as the next sport, basketball, which featured 15% of naturalized players. Play is now restricted.  The stroke itself consists of lifting the ball to an enormous height before it falls back to the opponent's side of the table. Table tennis became an Olympic sport in 1988, with singles and doubles competition for men and women. Keywords: table tennis, London Olympic Games, number of shots played per rally, winning ratios of server and receiver, evaluation criteria, coaching. Table tennis may be played with one player at each end of the table or with two players at each end who may be both men or both women or one of each. The aim of this research was to analyze the anaerobic characteristics of Slovenian elite table tennis male and female players. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. From the upturned palm of the server's motionless free hand, the ball is tossed upward and struck as it falls so that it first hits the server's half of the table, travels over (or around) the net, and then hits the opponent's half of the table. For example, if the order of play is A→X→B→Y at beginning of the first game, the order begins with X→A→Y→B or Y→B→X→A in the second game depending on either X or Y being chosen as the first server of the game. Slow or defensive play at one time was so dominant that, at the 1936 world championships in Prague, an hour was needed to decide a single point. Unlike a conventional "racket", it does not include strings strung across an open frame. For the opponent to have time to realize a serve is taking place, the ball must be tossed a minimum of 16 centimetres (6.3 in) in the air. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The first player to get to 11 points in a game is the winner. A match shall consist of the best of any odd number of games. The average size of the blade is about 17 centimetres (6.7 in) long and 15 centimetres (5.9 in) wide, although the official restrictions only focus on the flatness and rigidity of the blade itself, these dimensions are optimal for most play styles. Table tennis strokes generally break down into offensive and defensive categories.  The table or playing surface is uniformly dark coloured and matte, divided into two halves by a net at 15.25 cm (6.0 in) in height. The ball touches the net in service (service), provided the service is otherwise correct or the ball is obstructed by the player on the receiving side. The choice of ball color is made according to the table color and its surroundings. The racket may be any size, weight, or shape. Sidespin can also be employed in offensive rally strokes, often from a greater distance, as an adjunct to topspin or backspin. When a pair reaches 5 points in the final game, the pairs must switch ends of the table and change the receiver to reverse the order of play. Backhand chopThe backhand chop is executed away from the table and when the ball is on its way down. Perfected during the 1960s, the loop is essentially the reverse of the chop. After the apex of the curve, the ball dips downwards as it approaches the opposing side, before bouncing. In those early days, the scoring system was the same as in lawn tennis. The shakehand grip is so-named because the racket is grasped as if one is performing a handshake. If the umpire is doubtful of the legality of a service they may first interrupt play and give a warning to the server.  The table tennis official rules are specified in the ITTF handbook. The table is rectangular, 9 feet by 5 feet (2.7 metres by 1.5 metres), its upper surface a level plane 30 inches (76 cm) above the floor. Fig.13 shows the relationship between Ec/Ep and Ep. 1 year after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 15 when registered and has never represented another association, 3 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 15 when registered and has already represented another association, 5 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 18 but at least 15 years of age when registered, 7 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 21 but at least 18 years of age when registered, 9 years after the date of registration, if the player is at least 21 years old when registered, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 19:59. The order of play shall be A→X→B→Y. A lob can have nearly any kind of spin. For example, when the last order of play before a pair score 5 points in the final game is A→X→B→Y, the order after change shall be A→Y→B→X if A still has the second serve.  In competition play, matches are typically best of five or seven games. Forehand loopLoop shots are executed away from the table and when the ball is on its way down.  Thus, though backed off the table by tens of feet and running to reach the ball, a good defensive player can still win the point using good lobs.  There are also national bodies and other local authorities responsible for the sport, such as USA Table Tennis (USATT), which is the national governing body for table tennis in the United States..  First, the older 38 mm (1.50 in) balls were officially replaced by 40 mm (1.57 in) balls in October 2000. Concrete tables with a steel net or a solid concrete partition are sometimes available in outside public spaces, such as parks.. Subjective ranking of balls by professional players, 2. high speed video recordings of spinning balls, motion reconstruction, and ranking according to the oscillation amplitudes observed and 3. investigation of the sensitivity of the method … According to the ITTF regulations, at least 85% of the blade by thickness shall be of natural wood. On the bounce, the topspin will accelerate the ball, much in the same way that a wheel which is already spinning would accelerate upon making contact with the ground. Table tennis is governed by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), founded in 1926.  This increased the ball's air resistance and effectively slowed down the game. The DR, TPT, and RPT were not different between 2 groups ( p > 0.05). A chop is the defensive, backspin counterpart to the offensive loop drive. This stroke has greatly improved and strengthened the penhold style both physically and psychologically, as it eliminates the strategic weakness of the traditional penhold backhand. For example, a white ball is easier to see on a green or blue table than it is on a grey table. By that time, players had begun increasing the thickness of the fast sponge layer on their paddles, which made the game excessively fast and difficult to watch on television. The game is popular all over the world. The table is rectangular, 9 feet by 5 feet (2.7 metres by 1.5 metres), its upper surface a level plane 30 inches (76 cm) above the floor. Play is interrupted by the umpire or assistant umpire. Table tennis was growing in popularity by 1901 to the extent that tournaments were being organized, books being written on the subject, and an unofficial world championship was held in 1902. The game involves two or four players. Interest to the spectator lies in observing the ability of one player to defeat another by well-thought-out strategy. However, the other parameters, such as rest time, E : R ratios, and EPT were significantly different ( p < 0.05). Also, Stiga Clipper CR which is very common and famous 7-ply wood blade is also much faster than four Inner Fiber blades. Table tennis was introduced as an Olympic sport at the Olympics in 1988. Persson is one of the three table tennis players to have competed at seven Olympic Games. The ball, which may be coloured white, yellow, or orange, weighs about 0.09 ounce (2.7 grams) and has a diameter of about 1.6 inches (4 cm). A quick, smooth follow-through is desirable. The push (or "slice" in Asia) is usually used for keeping the point alive and creating offensive opportunities. It’s similar to cypress and the cedars in terms of its feel. Kenta Matsudaira is known for primarily using counter-hit for offense. This was followed by E.C. , In particular, Chinese-born players representing Singapore have won three Olympic medals, more than native Singaporeans have ever won in all sports. The service changes after each point. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics and efficiency of service in the best young table tennis players, as well as the existence of differences in service between young players of different ages. In 1933, the United States Table Tennis Association, now called USA Table Tennis, was formed. This configuration is sometimes referred to as "traditional penhold" and is more commonly found in square-headed racket styles. The opponent moves the playing surface or touches the net assembly. The position should feel balanced and provide a solid base for striking and quick lateral movement. 1. A total of 8 subjects were divided into two groups. Players may tailor their stance based upon their personal preferences, and alter it during the game based upon the specific circumstances.. Email Address * Birthday. The blade of a racket, or bat, is usually made of wood, is flat and rigid, and may be covered with a thin layer of ordinary stippled, or pimpled, rubber, which may be laid over a thin layer of sponge rubber and may have the pimples reversed. If the expedite system is introduced while the ball is not in play, the previous receiver shall serve first. The penhold grip is so-named because one grips the racket similarly to the way one holds a writing instrument. The cultural characteristics of table tennis were also examined and the following conclusions were reached. The opponent that has been warned by the umpire commits a second offense in the same individual match or team match. Balls are now made of a polymer instead of celluloid as of 2015, colored white or orange, with a matte finish. Physiological responses and characteristics of table tennis matches determined in official tournaments. Though the opponent may smash the ball hard and fast, a good defensive lob could be more difficult to return due to the unpredictability and heavy amounts of the spin on the ball. “The differences of national culture are reflected in table tennis, which makes the culture of table tennis a strong national character.”( Fang Chujie 2017.) Table tennis strokes generally break down into offensive and defensive categories. What identifies the stroke is that the backswing is compressed into a short wrist flick. The table’s surface is the most important aspect to consider because it has the greatest affect on the ball, and subsequently the game. Table tennis equipment is relatively simple and inexpensive. According to the New York Times, 31% of the table tennis players at the 2016 Summer Olympics were naturalized. Table tennis, also called (trademark) Ping-Pong, ball game similar in principle to lawn tennis and played on a flat table divided into two equal courts by a net fixed across its width at the middle. The type of ball is also different from tennis ball since it is very light. Players must hit the ball in turn. Table tennis, also known as ping-pong and whiff-whaff, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball, also known as the ping-pong ball, back and forth across a table using small rackets. The original association had broken up about 1905, though apparently the game continued to be played in parts of England outside London and by the 1920s was being played in many countries. The opponent's free hand touches the playing surface. The player, in a half-turn stance, swings downward while "brushing" or grazing the lower half of the ball with an open racket face (the top of the blade tipped away from the net). Otherwise, X is the next server and the order becomes X→A→Y→B. In addition to games between individual players, pairs may also play table tennis. Author information. Manufacturers often indicate the quality of the ball with a star rating system, usually from one to three, three being the highest grade. Due to the power involved in offensive strokes, often an opponent simply cannot recover quickly enough to return the blocked shot, especially if the block is aimed at an unexpected side of the table. The research sample consisted of 18 matches (10 juniors, 8 cadets) at international tournaments in 2018 (ETTU Youth Top 10 in Portugal, European Youth Championship in Romania). The ball may still be attacked, however, and the resulting shot is called a flip because the backswing is compressed into a quick wrist action. Kazuto Yoshida, Koshi Yamada, Sho Tamaki, Hisashi Naito , Masaru Kaga. For example, if A is paired with B, X is paired with Y, A is the server and X is the receiver. Another difference is that unlike backspin and topspin, sidespin will have relatively very little effect on the bounce of the ball, much in the same way that a spinning top would not travel left or right if its axis of rotation were exactly vertical. The ITTF also changed the rules on service to prevent a player from hiding the ball during service, in order to increase the average length of rallies and to reduce the server's advantage, effective in 2002. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. If the serve is a clear failure or is doubted again by the umpire after the warning, the receiver scores a point.  Worldwide, the women’s game is comparable in organization to the men’s, and women take part in world championships and all other organized events. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. In the second or the latter games of a match, the game begins in reverse order of play. Table tennis is governed by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), founded in 1926.